Tracing native land of Bách Việt

Posted at: MONday - 15/10/2012 15:56 - post name: Nguyễn Thị Thùy

Tracing native land of Bách Việt

In the journey of tracing the Việt tribes’ cultural roots, there have been many studies of the researchers around the world as well as in the country on many different areas.

Legends, mythical stories, and family registers, which were verified by fields of Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology, Anthropology, Paleoanthropologists, and Ethnic and Linguistic, were coordinately verified by the results of DNA molecular structure of the ethnic groups in Asia with the large enough area allowing the studies to determine the realism of Baiyue (Bách Việt) (the Vietnamese people today is the combination of Ouyue (Âu Việt) and Luoyue (Lạc Việt) tribes).

The Baiyue concept is understood in many different ways. For example, according to Từ Hải, the name refers to “the mishmash areas expanding seven or eight thousand miles and home to hundreds of Việt tribes from Giao Chỉ to Cối Khê, each country has its own clan."

Or according to Ngô Thì Sỹ: “In terms of Vũ Cống chapter, Việt country is located in the South of Yangzhou land. In the Thiên Quan book, eleven degrees from the Great Bear, over the Atair to the seven degrees from Vega is the period star (tinh kỷ). As of the stars, it is in the Ox house (ngôi Sửu), the area sharing the same stars (tinh phận) with the Wu nation. The southern realm is the Việt gate with many nations such as Ouyue (Âu Việt), Minyue (Mân Việt), and Luoyue (Lạc Việt), so it is called the Baiyue (Bách Việt). Because the land is located in the southern region, it is named as Nanyue (Nam Việt). The land extending from the Wu Ling Mountain to the south belongs to the Nanyue (Nam Việt).”

Or Đào Duy Anh added a number of locations “Yuyue in Zhejiang, Minyue in Fujian, Dongyue in Jiangxi, Nanyue in Guangdong, Luoyue in Annam”.

Recently, Ling Shun Sheng, professor of National Taiwan University, also recorded another area for Baiyue (Bách Việt) people, that's Hunan province, where in the third century BC, Qu Yuan - the San Lu Da Fu (Tam Lư Đại Phu) of the Chu was exiled to. In his exile, Qu Yuan was adapted Jiu Ge – Nine Songs (in the Chu-ci poems). And according to Ling, if considering carefully the Jiu Ge – Nine Songs, we can see the image exemplifying the sacrifices of the locality are exactly the same with those painted on the Đông Sơn bronze drum of Luoyue (Lạc Việt) people.

Mr. Ling also held that “the center of the Yangtze Delta before was home to the Indonesian tribe that Chinese history called Baiyue or Luoyue”.

Thus, the conceived Baiyue concept is quite obscure through different periods and researchers. The Baiyue concept used here refers to the community with the very large area of residence, which encompassed the entire Southern basin of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River and covered all areas of Indochina to the islands the Pacific Ocean.

In recent years the studies on Việt tribe and Han tribe of the researchers around the world have brought the unexpected results. The results generated by the Faculty of Genetic Analysis are entirely consistent with the ancient China bibliographies, Faculty of Archaeology, Anthropology, and Prehistoric Archaeology. The latest scientific evidence, which has the most convincing, confirmed again that the Việt tribe and Han tribe are 2 different tribes. The Việt tribe had the specific gene mutations of Asia while the Han tribe did not have this factor.

At the same time, it identifies that the area of residence of Malaynesian ethnic i.e. Malayo-Viets (Baiyue) extended from the Tần Lĩnh ranges, the lower course of the Yellow River in the Central Highlands to the Southeast Asian mainland and islands. The area of residence of the Việt tribe was bordered by the southern basin of the Yellow River to the North, Tibet to the West, Nanhai to the East, and the North Central Viet to the South – it was the frontier of Văn Lang nation of the Việt tribe.

The scientists of the Institut Franco-Asiatique, including Dr. Trần Đại Sỹ, an Italian professor Tarentino, and a French biologist professor Varcilla Pascale, applied the DNA system, which is the latest biological system, to gain the most convincing results. They examined the clothes, graves, bones, and teeth in ancient tombs through the ages until the end of the first century. Then, they used the DNA system to test the skeletons and blood of 35 families in the South China and in Vietnam; after that, they compared the results with other families in North China to show the conclusion as follows:

1. Residents of South China, from the South of the Changjiang to the Central Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand all have the same blood and race.

2. The residents are completely different from Han residents in North China. The results of the historically significant works defined that the Southeast Asian area stretches from the Yangtze River basin to the Red River basin and the Mekong Delta, which the Red River Delta is the center of and the Hòa Bình civilization of the Malaysian people originated from.

In 1998, Professor J.Y. Chu and his 13 colleagues of the University of Texas analyzed 15-30 samples of microsatellites DNA to test the genetic differences in 24 groups from different provinces in China, 4 Southeast Asian groups (consisting of 2 Native American, 1 Australian Aborigines, and 1 Native New Guinea), 4 Caucasian groups, and 3 African groups. The result of the study by using statistical analysis method is called Phylogetic Analysis. Scientist Chu and his 13 other colleagues of the University of Texas together with other major universities and research institutes in China announced a successful work in genetics entitled “Genetic Relationship of Population in China”, which was published in the Nation Academy of Sciences, USA, Vol.95, issue 20, July 29, 1998 as follows:

1. Two groups which have the most obvious difference are the African and other non-African peoples.

2. Ancestors of the today's East Asian population groups originated from Southeast Asia and Chinese living in the North China have the genetic structures which are different from those of the Chinese living in the South China ".

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