God of scientists

Posted at: THUrsday - 20/02/2014 15:31 - post name: Nguyễn Thị Thùy

 
Is this true that the Universe comes from a “Grand Design”?

Is this true that the Universe comes from a “Grand Design”?

The more the human being learns about the Universe and Human life, the more they are astonished by the mysteries of the Creator. The original questions are still there that why is there the Universe (or something more annoying) rather than nothingness (really simple)?

What is the origin of the Universe? Why does it operate so smoothly, sophisticatedly, and accurately? Why does this particular set of laws govern our universe and not some other set? Where are we from? Why do conscious people turn up to see the magical beauty of the Universe and gradually understand the sophisticated structure of the Living beings?
Those all, whether accidental or inevitable, seemingly come from a “Grand Design” (Stephen Hawking, The Grand Design, the Youth Publishing House, 2012) or a creative principle (Trinh Xuan Thuan, Space and Lotus, the Knowledge Publishing House, 2013).  Who is the author of those? That is the Creator or “God” of the scientists. However, this “God” has no human shape as the God (related to human fate and actions) of religion, but a pantheistic principle showing the accurate and surprisingly harmonious laws of the Nature.

In addition, although in the book, Hawking affirmed that the Science would get good results when decoding the whole Grand Design without hand of the God, he spoke away the name of the author of that Grand Design. On the contrary, Trinh Xuan Thuan did not hesitate to lay on a Pantheistic God.

Since the ancient times, many scientific fields, even philosophy, have contributed into clarifying little by little the aforementioned questions, but perhaps the Physics has been playing the key role. Up to now, the 2 latest physical achievements (will be briefly introduced to you as following) are given holly names.

1) The M-theory is expected as the Theory of Everything, of which M seemingly means Mother, Master, Miracle, or Mystery, etc.

2) Higgs particle (which is named after the English scientist Peter Higgs, 2013 Nobel Prize) has been called “God particle” accidentally when the Editor in Chief of a scientific book publishing house suggested that the author of the book about should call this particle God particle instead of Goddamn (because it has yet to be found out nearly half a century after being predicted).

The physicists assert that the whole Universe and Material that constitutes it generally consist of 18 basic particles (Electron, Photon, Quarks making up atomic nucleus, and so on); and 4 types of interaction forces among them such as Gravity, Electromagnetism, Weak nuclear force, and Strong nuclear force.

The Gravity impacts on everything of the Universe. For the big things, this force overwhelms all of the others and the Newton’s law of classical physics is always right. In the Einstein's theory of relativity, the Gravity is described as the curvature of four dimensional space-time (three spatial dimensions and one time dimension) under the effect of the physical volumes.
The Electromagnetism is stronger than Gravity and only causes the interaction between the two point charges. If the two charges have the same sign, the electromagnetism between them is repulsive; if they have different sign (positive or negative), the force is attractive. In the large-sized materials, the attractive and repulsive forces exterminate each other into neutral, but at the atomic scale, these forces are dominant and the cause of all chemical and biologic processes. The Electromagnetic Theory is mathematized perfectly by Maxwell.

The Weak nuclear force is the causative radioactivity of some special particles such as Uran, Plutonium and the major cause in the formulation of elements inside the stars and Universe at the beginning.

The Strong nuclear force associates Protons (positively charged) with Neutrons (uncharged) inside the nuclear and among the Quarks complementing Proton and Neutron. This force is the origin of the solar and nuclear power.

Although it is revolutionary in the physics, the theories of Maxwell and Einstein are the classical theories like those of Newton.  Classical means that they are incompatible with the world of quantum in the atomic and subatomic environment. In the tiny world, the behavior of matter is very different from the human experience in the visible world around us. Over time, the human brains are tempered only to receive definite objects with only history complying with the deterministic laws at the macro scale. However, in the microscopic world not visible to the naked eye, in which even to imagine is not an easy thing (atoms and subatomic particles), nothing is definite completely, but we can only talk about the probability of their existence somewhere sometime.  So that they have not only 1 history but any possible history also, each of which is in accordance with a special probability intensity and amplitude. The definition of deterministic does not exist. That is the core of the Quantum theory. This theory does not exclude but covers the classical theories: at the macro scale, classical is the particular case of quantum.

Thus, if we want to describe the electromagnetic behavior of atoms and molecules, we have to get the quantum version of Maxwell’s classical theory. This version was developed by the scientists in 1940s with name as the Theory of quantum electrodynamics and became the example quantum field theory. In the classical theories, the forces are transmitted by the fields. In the quantum theories, the force fields are created by the fundamental particles called Boson, which flies up and down to transmit to material particles - fermions. Electrons and Quacks are Fermions; Photon is an example of Boson, transmitting the electromagnetism to Fermions.

The great success of the theory of quantum electrodynamics stimulated the scientists to seek quantum field theories for the three remaining natural forces. In 1967, the general quantum field theory of Electromagnetism and Weak nuclear force was developed. After that, the special quantum field theory for Strong nuclear force called the Theory of quantum chromodynamics was born.

Likewise, if we want to describe the Universe at the beginning, when the entire materials and energies are compacted in a tiny volume, we certainly need a quantum version of the Einstein’s General theory of relativity for gravitational field.  Unfortunately, up to now, this version has yet to have explicit form as the other three forces. But the difficulties do not stop there.

Suppose the theory of quantum field especially for Gravitation is found out soon, the next step must be unifying all of 4 quantum fields in a general theory for everything.  It does not make sense while the Nature is so unified and harmonious, each of its component forces is described by a different theory. This desire for unity started to be rekindled and broken out from the appearance of String Theory in the 78-80s of the 20th century. According to the String Theory, the particles are not points but supper-thin string sections fluctuating in the 11-dimension space-time, more 7 dimensions than 4-dimension space-time (3 real space dimensions and 1 time dimension in the Einstein’s Theory of relativity), which are rolled up tightly on a such small scale that we cannot see. In the modern language, those are hidden or intrinsic dimensions in contrast to the external 3-dimension space spreading in the real space. At the end of the last century, the theoretical physicists recognized that there are at least 6 various String Theories (including those for Gravitation) and countless different ways of rolling of extra dimensions. They believe that these six String Theories are different approximate theories of a more fundamental theory: M-theory as mentioned above.

However, that is a far-away aspiration, even unfeasible. Fortunately, few top scientists have a mood of being anxious for the future difficulties. On the contrary, they increasingly throw themselves in danger spot.

What about the fate of 18 fundamental particles? The situation here is seemingly much more positive: 16 particles were found out; at the end of 2012, after half a century of painful pursuit of the experimental physics at the Center of European Nuclear Research, the proof of existence of the 17th fundamental particle – boson Higgs, which causes the volume of fundamental particles, was found out on the LHC accelerator. It can be called God particle meaning that without it, there will be no heavenly body as well as life on our blue beautiful planet.

 Only the 18th fundamental particle – Graviton of the Gravitation field has yet to be found out.  It will be revealed along with M-theory or later who knows how long. Although Me-theory is finally completed, there still are big questions as intellectual challenge to the scientists. For example, is there only one Universe we live in or more? Apart from the Earth, is there any place else with life? How is the structure and operation of the Dark matter (about 5/6 the whole Universe matter) and Dark energy (about 3/4 the whole Universe energy) which we have yet to see?

What a mysterious nature!  Every time the science opens the veil of secrecy, another appears imposingly in front. As Heisenberg once said with a general idea that the science is like a sweet wine bottle, when we have the first drink, we get drunk, but when we drink up, we see the “God” smiling at the bottom.

Translated by Nga Nguyen

Author: Chu Hảo
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